the Pipe and Tabor compendium

the Pipe and Tabor compendium

essays on the three-hole pipe

Europe: other percussion instruments with pipe

pipe and string drum
( tambourin à cordes / tambourin de bearn / chun-chun / tom tom)

The string drum goes by many names according to the region of Europe. Other names include:

Choron or Corun in the Middle Ages, Chicotén or Salterio in Aragon (Spain); Ttun ttun or Sokazko Ttunttuna in the Basque Country (north Spain/France); Tamborin in Gascony (France).

There are also variations in the instruments according to the region.


stone carvingstone carving

Laruns, France


how to make
(in Spanish)


1410 Czech1410 Central Bohemia, Czech Republic


15th/16th century Spain15th/16th century Galicia, Spain angel playing string drumangels playing string drum and viol  
angel playing string drum 1466-87 Spain 1489 Rome, Italy; fresco by Filippino Lippi  

15thcceiling fresco in San Salvatore Monastery, Brescia, Lombardy, Italy

2013 Catalonia, Spain1515 Lisbon, Portugal

  Portugal in bandc. 1515 Lisbon, Portugal: Assumption of the Virgin, painting, altarpiece in Convento da Madre de Deus

,The instrument was well known in Béarn in the 16th century.
In 1527 King Henri II d'Albret condemned by letters patent the "tambourines" which disturb the tranquility of religious buildings.

1494 Sforza Hours, British Library 15341534 Italy before restoration

1534 Italy

15341534 Saranno, Lombardy
16th century16th century Boi Valley, Catalonia "it appears in paintings from the 15th and 16th centuries in Spain, France and Italy... knowing how normal the exchange of musicians and instrumentalists in many European courts was at that time." ItalyBrescia, Italy 16th century Italy16th century Ferrara, Italy
1560 Italy1560 Firenze, Italy (detail) 16th century Italy, Siena16th century Siena, Italy (detail)

1598 Spain1598 Valencia, Spain part of angel band

1625-1630 Rome, Italy 1625-30 Italy 17th century Spain 16871687 Spain

1730 France
18th c toile fabric, France
18th century18th century France
1754 France1754 Tambourin de Béarn, France
18th century paintingearly 18th century painting, France
1765 drawing1765 drawing, France

"The tune he played to us..., has a pastoral character and mountain dweller. The inhabitants of these countries are so attached to this instrument that before the revolution of 1790, the Cantabrian regiment which recruited in the mountains of Béarn, only marched to the sound of those flageolets and those tambourines."


1791 drawing 1828 drawing1828 French Basque French BasquesFrench Basque
1845 Basque country1845 dancing, Basque country 1846 France Luchon, France19th century Luchon, France
1860's 1890 France, illustration Victorian19th century Basque
with fiddle19th century 20thc folk dance musicians, France Basque string drum1900 France
postcard - Hubert Boone

20th century France20th century France

1923 Basque1923 Basque painting
playing for dancers
19301930 Poster advertising the train France 1948 France1948 Angeles-sur-Mer, France
SpainChiflo Aragon, Spain 1952 Aragon, Spain 1 1952 Spain 2 old photograph of playerold photograph
old string drum photograph
Victorian France
female[source] more French string drums here and here 1975 CD cover1975 CD cover, France


20th century painting20th century painting, Basque country parade20th century 20th century painter
19341934 Advertising Poster 1941 Ramiro Arrue stage curtain design [detail] 19471947 postcard,
French painter [detail]
painting20th century, Basque, painting [detail]
20th playing for dancing20th century, Basque, playing for dancing
2007 2007 Monein, SW France procession procession, Aragon, NE Spain

video, France

22- 06 - 2008 3 061

2008 Aragon, Spain2008 Aragon, Spain 2009 workshop2009 French and Spanish workshop
2010 procession2010 procession BaztanValley, Navarre, Basque country memorial Spainmemorial on wall in Aragaon, Spain  

players2012 France

players 2012 France 2012 Basque country2012 Basque country, Spain string drum with pipe and tabor21st century Basque country
string drum with pipe and tabor
string drum2014 string drum Catalonia, Spain 21st century procession21st century Pau, France  
20152015 Toulouse, France
SpainSalamanca, Spain
2016 Gascony2016 flabuta and tom tom, Gascony, France
Par Unuaiga — Travail personnel, CC BY-SA 4.0
2019 Aragon, Spain2019 Aragon, Spain
Aragon, SpainAragon, Spain, religious procession
2021 chiflo2021 chiflo and string drum
played in cathedral celebration
Jaca, Aragon, Spain

playerFirmin Garaikoetxea, Spain

21st century concert21st century in concert 21st century Aragon Spainchicotén, Aragon, Spain 21st century Spain21st century Spain video:
21st centuryunknown Denmark2022 Poul Høxbro Denmark 20222022 Gabriele Bultmann playing string drum reconstructed from a fresco near Salamanca, Spain  
string drum and orchestra2021 string drum with Txirula and orchestra, Basque country

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