the Pipe and Tabor compendium

the Pipe and Tabor compendium

essays on the three-hole pipe

Europe: associated pipes

double pipes gallery

gallery contents

Double pipes, or two pipes played at the same time, are found in sculptures, paintings, stained glass, religious manuscripts and archaeology dating back into pre-history, right up to the present day. Sometimes the two pipes are exactly the same; other images show two slightly different shapes, often one playing the tune and the other a drone pipe. These images are drawn from reality as well as fantasy.

It is impossible to see the mouth-piece on some of these images: some may be duct flutes, others may have single or double reeds or be trumpets. If you have information on the mouth-piece of any of these instruments I would be grateful to know.

I have not included images where it is definately not a variety of duct-flute without keys. Around 1810 an English instrument maker, William Bainbridge, patented a keyed double flageolet which consisted of two English flageolets joined together so that the player could harmonise the tunes that s/he played. Flageolets are therefore not included here.


Duct flute in light wood, with a brass ring at the lower end, pierced with 2 channels. Sound generation by 2 bevels, placed at unequal heights. 6 double play holes (5 + thumb), plus 2 holes in the bottom. Gives a scale of B minor, at A=440 Hz.
unknown origin

Greece and area
2800-2300BCE Greece2800-2300BCE marble
statuette Keros, Greece

pre-history, cornelian intagio
(carved jewel)

350BCE tomb painting350-330BCE Greek
tomb painting
3-2BC statue3-2BCE bronze statue 11th c mosaic, Cyprus
Greece tarottarot card Greece21st century
Croatia and area
    In all parts of Croatia, double pipes almost regularly had four to five selection holes on the right side, and three to four on the left, while similar ones played in some parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and in Serbia they had a reverse arrangement of holes, so on the left side more, and on the right less. Also, none of the doubles from Croatia had holes on the underside, ie facing the player.
19th c
former Yugoslavia
  20th c djojnica
BosniaBosnia 1960-19701960-1970 Balkans
1895 dvojnice Bosnia1895 dvojnice Bosnia [Horniman Museum]

20th c (drone pipe)
Croatia 4 double pipesCroatia akkordflute and dvojnice 20th century Croatia player20th century Croatia player Croatia front an backCroatia front and back
1937 Croatia Dvojnice double pipescarved Dvojnice
žveglicas, children's toys Croatia CroatiaCroatia Dvojnice was played in various variants in all parts of Croatia, and various names were used for this instrument: dvojnice, žveglice, diple, dvogrele, dvojkinje, vidalice, etc.

For more Croatian instruments see the website of the Ethnographic Museum of Istria here and also here.
Serbia 20th c dvojnice

Serbia double being playedSerbia dvojnice

Serbia double pipeSerbia ? Serbia2folk music
MontenegroMontenegro Dvojenice
Albania cyla-diare
audio and other examples from the region 1978 stamp1978 stamp
BulgariaDvoyanka, Bulgaria Bulgaria (sound) Bulgaria (sound)
modern dwojnica
carved dvojnicecarved dvojnice BulgariaWest Bulgaria
BulgariaWooden folk instrument with two pipes 21st century Bulgaria
Czech Republic
1910, Royal Dux, Bohemia
HungaryTransylvania and Transdanubia
HungaryThere are 6 sound-producing openings on one side and none on the other.Hungary
1320-30 Ghent, Belgium
1338-1344 Tournai, Belgium
Belgium sculptureLeuven University library, Belgium
20th century Belgium20th century fantasy art
double pipes1440 Utrecht, Netherlands 14451445-1460 Haarlem, Netherlands angel playerpainting (anon) angel player 1700 Netherlands1700 Amsterdam 18th century Netherlands18th century Netherlands
20222022 Luci Horsch

The Stenlundapipa is a refinement of the double flute in which the tone of the drone pipe can be varied. The flute comprises two pipes in one unit, both of which are tuned in a major key. One of the pipes is equipped with small corks that can be used to close the desired number of finger holes. It is made in three different sizes: C, A, and G.

9th-12th century Auvergne9th -12th century
1185 1185 France 1225-1250 Paris, France
(possibly reeded instrument)
after 1246after 1246 Arras
1275-1325, Toulouse, France 14th c.Finistere, Britanny
wood carving
14th century ceiling14th century ceiling fresco
Cathédrale Saint Julien du Mans
1300 France1300-1340 France [f42v]
1300 France1300-1340 France [f73r] 1300-13401300-1340 France [f80v] 14th century fresco14th century Saint Ouen, Rouen fresco  
14181418 Paris, France 1430-14601430-1460 Burgandy, France 1415-1430, Paris, France 1453 Bourges, Palais Jacques Coeur
1451 France1451 'The Nine Muses' manuscriptmanuscript 15th century fresco15th century fresco
Bayeaux Cathedral
France, church corbel15th/16th century stone carving
Saint-Médard de Thouars Church, France
16th century France16th century France after Clondion (18thc) after Clondion (18thc)
1850 France1850 'The Flute Lesson' [detail] 18611861 photograph
VictorianLalique pendant
20th c. France
Samson copy of earlier ceramic figures


Georges Maxim figurine1930's Georges Maxim figurines   Georges Maxime figurine
Georges Maxime figurine Georges Maxim figurine 2021 player2021 Miquèu Montanaro
1871 Austria1871 painting   1966 austria painting1966 painting        
11th century manuscript11th century manuscript 13thc Germany or Scandinavia
chess piece
1469 Pilsum1469 Pilsum,
baptismal font
15th century15th century Heidelberg
ceiling painting
15001500 engraving
15621562 engraving 14501680 painted altar-piece 1698 Germany engraving1698 engraving 1800 Germany1800
18791879 painting of children 20th c. Volkestedt porcelain 20042004 Foyer of Espelkamp Theatre, Germany 
female double pipes player21st century female player, Germany  



6th-5th century BCE Sardinia6th-5th century BCE Sardinia
400-300BC Etruscan
votive model
1st 2nd AD Roman
bronze figure
(restored pipes)
150CE150 CE on side of
marble funerary urn
150-200AD Roman
Sardinia carvingSardinia 1312 Martini painting 13381338 religious painting
1395 Aretino 1468 Italy1468 Spechi Abbey, Rome early 15th centuryearly 15th century Siena, Italy
Donatello1445 Donatello 1447-50 Donatello   15th century Atri Cathedral15th century Atri Cathedral, Abruzzo 14911491 Tuscany
1465 tarot card 1470's1470's Italy [possibly double reed with circular breathing]
1485-95 Florence, print
1500 Italy1500 Tuscany 1500-05 BM 15081508 Mantua 1515 Raphael tapestry1515 Raphael tapestry
1515 BM 16th century 16th century 15261526-1530 Parma Cathedral
1525 majolica plate 1534-6 painting northern Italy Melpomene, muse of tragedyMelpomene
1534 Saronno, Italy1534-6 painting Saronno, Italy 16th century alterpiece16th century Siena, alterpiece early 17thc paintingearly 17th century painting [detail], Sicily, Italy 17th Sicily17th century painting [detail] Sicily
1722 Milan1722 Milan, Italy Anciuti workshop
Spain flute d'accordflute d'accord with key [Venice]
old printprint published 1742 Rome 18th c ring 1700-1880 print
unknownunknown, possibly southern Italy unknownunknown, possibly southern Italy

ItalyBenevento Italy

2021  player2021 Augusto Mastrantoni, Rome, Italy
1005 Pamploma Casket1005 Pamploma casket panel Covet, stone carving1107 stone carving
Covet, Catalonia
11th century Catalonia11th century Catalonia
wall painting
12th century Spain12th century Tudela, Navarra
Toro, Zamora13th century Toro, Zamora, Spain from another angle13th century Toro, from another angle
13th century Catalonia animal13th century Catalonia 13th century13th century Burgos Cathedral 13th century13th century Sasamon Church, Castille
13th century stone carving13th century Sasamón Stone carvingstone carvings Toledo Cathedral stone carving Biota, SpainBiota, Spain
1326 Catalonia1326 Pedralbes Monestry

14th century14th century
Guadalupe, Extramadura bronze door (part)

14th/15th century14th/15th century
Pamplona14th/15th century
1441 stone carving1441
Valencia Cathedra


15th century15th century Valencia Cathedral
[probably double reeds]
15th/16th century15/16th century Giovanni Di Pietro AragonAragon
paintingRoyal Palace of Madrid tapestry    
VictorianVictorian by Mariano Fortuny Picasso1946 'Yellow and blue faun' by Picasso Picasso1958 'White Faun' oil painting by Picasso
1400 Switzerland1400-1410 Geneva, Switzerland (detail of angel player) 1400 angel player1400 angel player c1800 akkordflute SwitzerlandLate18th/early19thc
Toggenburg Switzerland
20202020 Basle, Switzerland Silke Gwendolyn Schulze 20222022 Basle, Switzerland
Silke Gwendolyn Schulze
Poland Poland
2015 video2015 video by Soboku Music  


If you can identiry these images and let me know I would be very grateful for the information.

Victorian tiles not known
Ivory plaqueIvory plaque unknown not knownunknown double pipes
unknownunknown double pipes unknownunknown unknownmedieval angel
unknown5unknown unknownunknown  



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