the Pipe and Tabor compendium

the Pipe and Tabor compendium

essays on the three-hole pipe

Europe: other percussion instruments with pipe

pipe and string drum
( tambourin à cordes / tambourin de bearn / chun-chun / tom tom)

Laruns, France


how to make
(in Spanish)

The string drum goes by many names according to the region of Europe. Other names include:

Choron or Corun in the Middle Ages, Chicotén or Salterio in Aragon (Spain); Ttun ttun or Sokazko Ttunttuna in the Basque Country (north Spain/France); Tamborin in Gascony (France).

There are also variations in the design of the instrument according
to the region.

Originally the string drum was played on it's own, without a pipe.
stone carvingstone carving
1410 Czech1410 Central Bohemia, Czech Republic 1450-601450-60 manuscript, Poitiers, France

14th century14th century fresco Church of Carraascal de Velambelez, Salamanca, Spain

15th century15th century stone carving Sulmona, Italy
15th/16th century Spain15th/16th century Galicia, Spain
angel playing string drum angel playing string drum 1466-87 Spain
angels playing string drum and viol in the village of Cervera del Río Alhama (Rioja Baja, Spain)
1489 Rome, Italy; fresco by Filippino Lippi British Library1490-1521 Sforza Hours, British Library


16th century16th century bas-relief on tombstone, Naples, Italy

2013 Catalonia, Spain1515 Lisbon, Portugal Portugal in bandc. 1515 Lisbon, Portugal: Assumption of the Virgin, painting
altarpiece in Convento da Madre de Deus

,The instrument was well known in Béarn in the 16th century.
In 1527 King Henri II d'Albret condemned by letters patent the "tambourines" which disturb the tranquility of religious buildings.

15341534 Italy
before restoration
1534 Italy

15341534 Saranno, Lombardy

1560 Italy1560 Firenze, Italy 16th century16th century Boi Valley, Catalonia "it appears in paintings from the 15th and 16th centuries in Spain, France and Italy... knowing how normal the exchange of musicians and instrumentalists in many European courts was at that time."
Italyceiling fresco in San Salvatore Monastery, Brescia, Lombardy, Italy 16th century Italy16th century Ferrara, Italy 15871587 Altamura
southern Italy
16th century Italy, Siena16th century Siena, Italy (detail) 15921592 Rome, Italy in a band

1598 Spain1598 Valencia, Spain
part of angel band

1625-1630 Rome, Italy 1625-30 Italy 17th century Spain unknown dateunknown date, France

16871687 Spain 1730 France 18th c toile fabric, France 17501750 tapestry France
18th century18th century France 1754 France1754 Tambourin de Béarn, France unknown dateunknown date
18th century paintingearly 18th century painting, France
1765 drawing1765 drawing, France

"The tune he played to us..., has a pastoral character and mountain dweller. The inhabitants of these countries are so attached to this instrument that before the revolution of 1790, the Cantabrian regiment which recruited in the mountains of Béarn, only marched to the sound of those flageolets and those tambourines."


1791 drawing 1828 drawing1828 French Basque French BasquesFrench Basque
1844 France1844‘Hand-book for travellers in France : being a guide to Normandy, Brittany, the rivers Loire, Seine, Rhone
and Garonne, the French Alps, Dauphiné, Provence and the Pyrenees’
1845 Basque country1845 dancing, Basque country 1846 France 18491849 France, leading a procession back from harvesting
18721872 France
1890 France, illustration
Victorian19th century Basque

with fiddle19th century for dancing at Eaux-Bonnes and Laruns, France

18561856 for dancing, France
Luchon, France19th century Luchon, France
19th century19th century Eaux Bonnes, France 19th century19th century Eaux Bonnes, France 1889-18931880-1893 for dancing in the Pyrenees
20thc folk dance musicians, France
string drum1900 France
postcard - Hubert Boone
old photograph of playerold photograph

20th century France20th century France

1923 Basque1923 Basque painting
playing for dancers
19301930 Poster advertising the train France 1948 France1948 Angeles-sur-Mer, France
SpainChiflo Aragon, Spain 1952 Aragon, Spain 1 1952 Spain 2
old string drum photograph
Victorian France
more French string drums here and here  
20th century painting20th century painting, Basque country parade20th century 20th century painting
19341934 Advertising Poster 1941 Ramiro Arrue stage curtain design [detail] 19471947 postcard,
French painting [detail]
painting20th century, Basque, painting [detail]
20th playing for dancing20th century, Basque, playing for dancing
1975 CD cover1975 CD cover, France
2007 2007 Monein, SW France procession procession, Aragon, NE Spain

video, France

22- 06 - 2008 3 061

2008 Aragon, Spain2008 Aragon, Spain 2009 workshop2009 French and Spanish workshop female[source]
2010 procession2010 procession BaztanValley, Navarre, Basque country memorial Spainmemorial on wall in Aragaon, Spain 2012 Basque country2012 Basque country, Spain
string drum with pipe and tabor21st century Basque country
string drum with pipe and tabor
string drum2014 string drum Catalonia, Spain 21st century procession21st century Pau, France
20152015 Toulouse, France
SpainSalamanca, Spain
2016 Gascony2016 flabuta and tom tom, Gascony, France
Par Unuaiga — Travail personnel, CC BY-SA 4.0
2019 Aragon, Spain2019 Aragon, Spain
Aragon, SpainAragon, Spain, religious procession
2021 chiflo2021 chiflo and string drum
played in cathedral celebration
Jaca, Aragon, Spain

playerFirmin Garaikoetxea, Spain

21st century concert21st century in concert 21st century Aragon Spainchicotén, Aragon, Spain 21st century Spain21st century Spain
2020 Spain
21st centuryunknown Denmark2022 Poul Høxbro Denmark 20222022 Gabriele Bultmann playing string drum reconstructed from a fresco near Salamanca, Spain  
string drum and orchestra2021 string drum with Txirula and orchestra, Basque country

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